About Nepal



Nepal has a surface of 147,181 sq km and is situated at the highest altitude on the globe, with no direct access to the Planetary Ocean.

On a very small surface there are varied landscapes. The width of the country is below 200 km, but its peaks are permanently covered by ice.

Mount Everest (Sagarmatha, Chomolungma)– the highest peak in the world with 8.848 m altitude - is on the border between Nepal and China. Throughout the country there are high mountains crossed by deep valleys. After massive deforestation many years ago, terraces have been created on the mountains’ slopes.

The Himalayas rise above 2,000 – 4,000 meters above sea level. The area has 3 big sectors: Terai (South) – in the Gange Plains (around 200 m average height); the Siwalik, Mahabharat and Himalaya Mountain (Central) – altitude below 3000 m; the High Himalaya (North) – with 23 peaks that go over 7600 m and 8 peaks that are over 8000 m high: Everest, Kangchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu, Cho-Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and Annapurna.

The climate, influenced by the altitudes, is tropical-monsoonal in the South with many precipitations and nice winters; subtropical climate in the in the Central part; and moderate and cold climate in the high Himalayas.

The vegetation varies from tropical jungle to pine, oak and other conifer tree forests, to alpine plains. The forests occupy over 40% of the country territory.

The wildlife is also very different: rhinoceros, tigers, elephants, deer, wild goats, snow leopards, crocodiles and over 1000 species of birds.

The streams (Karnali, Gandaki, Sun Kosi etc.) belong to the Ganges basin and have a high energetic potential (63000MW).

Nepal is divided in 14 areas and 75 districts, grouped in 5 regions. Each district is administrated by a permanent chief-officer that has the responsibility to maintain the law and order, as well as coordinating the government’s activities.

Nepal’s economy is characterized by a high population working in agriculture (80%), which is common for countries that are in a development process. The industry is represented by small businesses which focus on forest and agricultural raw materials processing: wool, wood, sugar, jute; as well as chemical industry and hydro energy production.

Nepal History

Nepal History

The geography of Nepal, situated between China in the North and India in the South had a great influence over the history of the entire country of Nepal. The population is formed by Nepalese of Indo-European immigrants from India, and Tibetan-Birman tribes in the North from Tibet.

The first documented mentions of Nepal are from the III-IV centuries, and the inauguration of the trans-Himalayan passes after the 600s make Nepal a transit zone in the intercontinental commerce between China and India over Tibet. The Indian influence over the Nepalese principalities from the Middle Ages is consolidated by the Hindu refugees seeking new shelter after the Islamic reign takes over Northern India (1526).

The father of Modern Nepal was the GorkhaKing Prithvi Narayan Shah in 1768. He succeeded in unifying the kingdoms of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur into a single state under his Shah dynasty. The new government sets capital in Katmandu and declares Hinduism as the official state religion.

Nepal was the only Hindu kingdom in the world. The absolute monarchy lasted until 1990, when following some civil riots, the king Birendra (ruling since 1972) adopted a Constitutional Monarchy.

In 2001, the Crown Prince Dipendra murdered his father, King Birendra, and several other members of the royal family, and then killed himself.

Prince Gyanendraascended the throne and in 2005 he suspended the Constitution and assumed direct control over the country. After civil movements in 2006, the king agreed to give up absolute power and to reinstate a form of democracy.

The Shah dynasty had a troubled leadership until the monarchy was abolished after many years of fighting with the Mao-communist guerrilla fighters. Eventually ex-insurgents manage to enter the parliament and win the elections of 2008, resulting in the immediate fall of the monarchy. Nepal was declared a republic in May 2008 (The Federal Republic of Nepal). After the king left the royal palace became a museum.

The Population of Nepal

The Population of Nepal

Nepal has a population of 30 million with 200 people per sq km. The average age of the population is 21.6 years. Only 4.4% of the population are over 64.

The official language of the country is Nepali, but there are over 100 indigenous dialects used by over 40 ethnic groups and tribes.

The majority of the population is Nepalese of Indo-Aryan origin, but there is also an important Tibetan-Nepalese minority and a small Dravidian community.

The main religions are: Hinduism (80.6%), Buddhism (10.7%), Islam (4.2%), and Kirant (3.6%).

The main ethnic-cultural groups of Nepal can be divided by the altitude levels in the country:

- High Himalayas: Sherpa, Dolpa, Lare, Siar, Manang Bas, Lopas, Olangchung, Thudam, Topke Gola, Ihomis

- Lower Himalayas: Brahmin, Chhetris, Kirati, Rai, Limbu, Newar, Tamang, Magar, Gurung, Thakali etc.

- Terai and South Nepal: Brahman, Rajput, Tharu, Rajbansis, Satar, Muslim



Tourism plays an important part in the Nepalese economy, the country having a huge potential: the Kathmandu Valley temples, the jungle in the South (National Park Chitwan), the villages, the monasteries, the Himalayan valleys and mountains.

UThe capital Katmandu – where famous medieval Hindu and Buddhist temples join the tumultuous life specific to a capital - is loved by tourists. Katmandu is called the "Florence of Asia" because of the many monuments with old architecture. Thamel, the tourist part of the city, hosts many restaurants and mountain equipment shops, photo-video materials, maps, tourist guides and souvenirs.

Nepal has the highest 8 points on our planet in the Himalayas, including the Everest. The most popular and accessible trekking routes include: the Everest Base Camp and Kala Pathar, Goyko Lake and the Annapurna circuit.

There are also other areas with less frequented routes but extremely appealing and with a well preserved rural life: Dolpo, Mustang, Dhaulagiri circuit, Kangchenjunga, Manaslu. The Langtang area offers ideal trekking possibilities close to the capital.

For climbing enthusiasts – Nepal is a true paradise. There are objectives there for all tastes and levels, from the so called trekking peaks of 6500 m to the difficult and pretentious giants of over 8000 m.

The most recommended tourist seasons for both trekking and climbing are spring (April-May)/ the pre-monsoon season and fall (September-November)/ the post-monsoon season.

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